Bisabolol is a natural terpene found in various plants, renowned for its numerous health benefits and medicinal properties. With a chemical structure composed of two isoprene units, bisabolol is a colorless, viscous liquid with a sweet floral aroma. It is most commonly extracted from chamomile, but can also be found in other plants such as the Candeia tree and cannabis.

In the realm of medicine and wellness, bisabolol has gained significant attention due to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial properties. These attributes make it a promising compound in the treatment of various conditions. Research indicates that bisabolol can aid in reducing inflammation, making it useful in managing skin conditions like eczema and acne. Additionally, its analgesic effects suggest potential use as a natural pain reliever.

In the context of cannabis, bisabolol plays a crucial role in the entourage effect—the synergistic interaction between different cannabinoids and terpenes in the plant. It enhances the therapeutic potential of cannabis by improving its absorption and bioavailability. When combined with cannabinoids like CBD, bisabolol has shown promise in reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation without causing intoxication.

Moreover, bisabolol has found applications beyond the realm of medicine. In the cosmetic industry, it is utilized in skincare products due to its soothing and skin-conditioning properties. Its antimicrobial effects make it a valuable ingredient in personal care products, such as mouthwashes and deodorants.

Overall, the terpene bisabolol stands as a remarkable natural compound, offering numerous benefits for daily health and wellness, especially when harnessed alongside cannabis. As research continues, its potential impact on medicine and society is likely to grow, opening up exciting possibilities for improved health and well-being



Linalool is a naturally occurring terpene found in numerous plant species. Cinnamon has been known to be the strongest linalool producer containing more than 92% linalool in the essential oil. Its biological use in plants is multifaceted. As a volatile organic compound, linalool serves a crucial role in attracting pollinators, such as bees and butterflies, aiding in the plant’s reproductive cycle. Additionally, it acts as a natural defense mechanism, deterring herbivores and pathogens, thereby safeguarding the plant’s health.

The terpene linalool has significant applications in various industries. In the fragrance and cosmetic industry, it contributes to the pleasant aroma of many products and essential oils. Its antimicrobial properties make it a valuable additive in cleaning and personal care products.

Linalool shows great potential in the field of medicine. Studies have suggested that it possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anxiolytic properties. This makes linalool a promising candidate for future medicinal developments, potentially aiding in the treatment of various health conditions.

In the realm of cannabis, linalool contributes to the unique aroma and flavor of different strains. It also works synergistically with other cannabinoids and terpenes to produce an “entourage effect,” believed to enhance the therapeutic benefits of cannabis products.
In daily health and nutrition, linalool-rich plants, such as lavender, may provide relaxation and stress-relief benefits through aromatherapy and herbal remedies. There are nearly 2 dozen fruits that contain linalool, including, figs, apples, lemons, nectarines, and grapefruit. Vegetables that contain linalool include carrots, corn and tomatoes.


Humulene, also known as α-humulene or humulene, is a prominent terpene found in various plant species, including cannabis. It is responsible for the earthy, woody, and slightly spicy aroma often associated with hops, cloves, and basil. While humulene is not unique to cannabis, it plays a significant role in shaping the plant’s profile of therapeutic and aromatic compounds.

In plants, humulene serves several beneficial purposes. It acts as a natural defense mechanism against pests, thanks to its insect-repellent properties. Additionally, humulene exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, making it an appealing therapeutic compound. These properties have garnered attention within the cannabis industry, as humulene contributes to the entourage effect—the synergy between cannabinoids and terpenes that enhances the overall therapeutic potential of cannabis.

Today, humulene finds extensive use in aromatherapy and natural medicine. Its potential benefits include reducing pain and inflammation, suppressing appetite, and aiding in weight loss. Humulene has also been studied for its potential anti-cancer properties, showing promise in inhibiting tumor growth, and inducing cancer cell death.

In the field of medicine, humulene’s potential applications are being explored. Research suggests that it may possess antibacterial properties, making it a potential candidate for fighting bacterial infections. Furthermore, its anti-inflammatory effects may contribute to the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis. By adding this effective terpene into your diet, you can eat fruits like grapefruit, guava, raspberries, oranges, and mangos. Vegetables like artichokes, celery, and carrots. And spices like cloves, bay leaves, and oregano. Or simply adding the essential oil EO with this terpene to your creams, oils etc.

As scientific studies continue to unveil the therapeutic potential of humulene, it holds promise for further advancements in medicine and natural remedies. Its presence in cannabis adds to the complexity and diversity of the plant’s therapeutic effects, making it a valuable component in the realm of alternative medicine and holistic wellness.

Beta Caryophyllene

Beta Caryophyllene

Beta-caryophyllene is a fascinating terpene that holds numerous benefits for cannabis plants, the industry, and modern medicine. Terpenes are aromatic compounds found in various plants, including cannabis, which contribute to their distinct flavors and scents. Beta-caryophyllene is known for its spicy, woody aroma, reminiscent of black pepper, cloves, and hops.
One of the most notable aspects of beta-caryophyllene is its interaction with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Unlike other terpenes, beta-caryophyllene acts as a cannabinoid by binding to the CB2 receptors of the ECS. This interaction provides a unique advantage for cannabis plants as it enhances their therapeutic potential. By activating the CB2 receptors, beta-caryophyllene exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and neuroprotective properties. In the cannabis industry, beta-caryophyllene plays a vital role. It not only contributes to the overall aroma and flavor profile of cannabis strains but also enhances the entourage effect. The entourage effect refers to the synergistic interaction between different cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds in cannabis, resulting in enhanced therapeutic benefits. Beta-caryophyllene’s ability to bind to CB2 receptors amplifies the effects of other cannabinoids, such as CBD, leading to a more potent therapeutic experience.
Beta-caryophyllene’s unique pharmacological properties have garnered attention in modern medicine. The terpene exhibits promising potential as an anti-inflammatory agent, making it useful for conditions such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Its pain-relieving properties also make it a potential natural alternative for pain management. Additionally, beta-caryophyllene has shown neuroprotective effects, which could be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Beta-caryophyllene’s role as a selective CB2 receptor against without binding to CB1 receptors differentiates it from other cannabinoids like THC. This property means that beta-caryophyllene can deliver therapeutic benefits without the psychoactive effects commonly associated with cannabis. As a result, it has gained interest as a potential treatment option for mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression.
In recent years, research on beta-caryophyllene has expanded beyond its effects on the ECS. Studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. The terpene’s antioxidant activity helps protect cells from oxidative stress, reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Its potential anticancer effects have been observed in various cancer cell lines, indicating its ability to inhibit tumor growth. Additionally, beta-caryophyllene has exhibited antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria and fungi, making it a possible natural remedy for infections.As the understanding of beta-caryophyllene grows, so does its application in various industries. It is increasingly used in the formulation of natural remedies, wellness products, and even in the food and beverage industry to enhance flavors and provide potential health benefits.
In conclusion, beta-caryophyllene plays a unique interaction with the endocannabinoid system, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, and potential therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders and mental health conditions make it a valuable compound. It’s antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties contribute to its growing importance in multiple industries.



Myrcene is a natural organic compound found in various plants, including cannabis. As one of the most widespread monoterpenes you can find it in close to 200 plants including but not limited too, dill, oat, nutmeg, citronella, Cleary sage, spearmint, thyme, and water mint. It is one of the most abundant terpenes present in cannabis, contributing to its distinctive aroma and flavor. Myrcene is known for its potential therapeutic properties and plays a crucial role in the entourage effect, a synergistic interaction of various compounds in cannabis that enhances its overall therapeutic potential.

Biological activity in plants:

In terms of its biological activity, myrcene acts as a potent anti-inflammatory agent, making it beneficial for conditions such as arthritis and chronic pain. It also exhibits sedative effects, aiding in relaxation and promoting better sleep. Additionally, myrcene has been found to have analgesic properties, helping to alleviate pain.

Uses in medicine:

The medical applications of myrcene extend beyond its anti-inflammatory and sedative effects. It has shown potential as an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals. Research suggests that myrcene may have anticancer properties as well, inhibiting the growth of tumor cells.
In the cannabis industry, myrcene plays a significant role. It not only contributes to the distinct aroma and flavor profiles of different cannabis strains but also influences their effects. Cannabis strains with higher levels of myrcene are often associated with sedating and relaxing effects, making them suitable for those seeking pain relief or improved sleep. Myrcene helps with the healing powers for breast cancer patients, an antioxidant, treatments of ischemic stroke and sedatives for sleep.

Uses in our industry:

Myrcene is also utilized in the production of essential oils, perfumes, and flavorings due to its pleasant fragrance and taste. Its versatility and wide range of potential health benefits have made myrcene a sought-after compound in both the medical and cannabis industries.
Mycrene can be achieved by eating fruits like apricots, blood oranges, blueberries, figs, guava, grapefruit, kiwi, lemons, limes, mandarins, mangos, oranges, tangerines and yuzu. It can also be found in many spices for cooking.


Overall, myrcene is a fascinating terpene found in cannabis, offering various potential health benefits. Its anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antioxidant properties make it a valuable component in medicinal applications, while its role in the cannabis industry contributes to the unique characteristics and effects of different strains.


Pinene is a naturally occurring terpene found in various plants making it the most natural terpene on earth. Pinene occurs in over 157 plants and its name comes from the pine tree and the sap/resign that is produces. Some of the most common plants you will find pinene include and not limited to; cannabis, eucalyptus, salvia, lemongrass, strawberry, turmeric, and Salvia.
Pinene exists in two forms: alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. (a-pinene and b-pinene) This aromatic compound not only contributes to the distinct scent of pine forests but also offers numerous benefits. In plants, pinene acts as a potent insect repellent, deterring pests and protecting against herbivory. It also exhibits antimicrobial properties, inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi. Pinene has been known to function as an ovicidal agent (inhibiting the growth of insect ova) against some other insect larvae.
Uses in medicine:
Pinene possesses anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator properties, making it useful in traditional medicine for respiratory conditions. Its potential therapeutic applications include reducing pain, improving memory, and even acting as an anticancer agent, highlighting the diverse biological activity of this remarkable compound. Pinene’s ability to enhance memory and cognitive function has sparked interest in the field of neurology, potentially aiding in the development of treatments for Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders. Furthermore, studies have explored pinene’s anticancer properties, suggesting it may inhibit tumor growth and serve as a deterrent to conventional cancer therapies.
Uses in the industry:
Pinene is a versatile terpene and has many uses in our industry. Its distinct pine aroma makes it a popular ingredient in the fragrance and flavor industry, contributing to the creation of perfumes, air fresheners, and cleaning products. Pinene’s solvency properties make it a valuable component in the production of resins, adhesives, and paints. It is also utilized in the manufacturing of flavors for food and beverages. Pinene serves as a forerunner for the synthesis of chemicals like camphor, menthol, and synthetic pine oils. Its potential as a renewable and sustainable feedstock has drawn interest for the production of biofuels and bioplastics. Pinene’s wide-ranging applications make it a valuable resource in various industrial sectors.


Limonene is a terpene commonly found in various plants , including citrus fruits, and plays a significant role in cannabis plants. It is responsible for the distinct citrusy aroma and flavor exhibited by certain cannabis strains. With its versatile nature, limonene offers numerous benefits to today’s society and the world of medicine .

One of the distinct characteristics of limonene is its uplifting and energizing properties. It is known to have mood-enhancing effects and can potentially alleviate stress and anxiety. This makes it a valuable compound in the development of cannabis-based medicines aimed at mental health disorders. Furthermore, limonene possesses anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, which could contribute to the treatment of pain and inflammation-related conditions.

In addition to its medicinal potential, limonene finds application in various industries. It serves as a natural solvent and is commonly used in cleaning products, fragrances, and cosmetics. Due to its appealing citrus scent, it is also employed in the food and beverage industry to enhance the flavor and aroma of products.

From a health and nutrition perspective, limonene has shown promise in various studies. It exhibits antioxidant properties, potentially protecting against cellular damage caused by free radicals. Some research suggests that limonene may have anti-cancer properties and could be beneficial in the prevention and treatment of certain types of cancer. Additionally, limonene has been associated with improved digestion and may aid in relieving gastric distress.

However, it is important to note that while limonene is generally considered safe for consumption, it may interact with certain medications and should be used with caution. As with any compound, individual sensitivities may vary, and excessive consumption could lead to adverse effects.

In conclusion, limonene plays a vital role in cannabis. Its potential in medicine, industry, and health and nutrition makes it a valuable compound today. Continued research and exploration of limonene’s properties could pave the way for innovative applications and advancements in various fields.

terpenes 101

Terpenes 101

Intro: Terpenes are organic compounds found in various plants that play a significant role in insect control. These aromatic molecules act as natural insecticides, deterring pests and protecting crops without harming the environment. Terpenes are responsible for the distinct smells emitted by plants, which can repel insects or disrupt their feeding and reproductive patterns. Through their insecticidal properties, terpenes offer an eco-friendly alternative to synthetic pesticides, reducing the dependence on harmful chemicals in agriculture. Harnessing the power of terpenes in pest management promotes sustainable farming practices, protects biodiversity, and ensures a safer food supply for our society.

Terpenes can be found in essential oils of plants and are made up of small molecules produced by plants, including, fungi, insects, nematodes and bacteria.

It is talked wildly that chemical communication extends to humans and plants, especially when it comes to cannabis. Humans can receive communication through the scent of the plant, it tells us something about the plant and it makes us feel a special way.

Human olfactory receptors contain small depressions shaped to receive certain molecules. When those holes are filled with the correspondingly shaped volatile molecule the human brain perceives this as a smell. Therefore, we are built to integrate with terpenes. Our nose is sensitive enough to detect even small differences in the same terpene. Limonene is the best example of this, which is a top five terpene of cannabis. Limonene occurs as two different isomers, d-limonene and l-limonene. D isomer is perceived as citrusy, and 1 as fuel or pine.

Plants use terpenes as weapons of defense, to heal and protect wounds to promote propagation. They do this to protect the plants from fungi, bacteria etc. to communicate with other plants and organisms in their environment. Cannabis acts on the same and uses terpenes for similar purposes. Terpenes such as pinene, limonene, and linalool are considered the same from plant to plant they have many similarities and this how we can back up our evidence of them existing between plant species.

Insect traps/ repellents:

One of the most effective ways to manage pests is to physically immobilize them. Cannabis plants do this by producing large amounts of sticky trichomes containing terpenes like pinene and myrcene. These trichomes are produced and meant to act as a dangerous trap meant to immobilize the insects and or kill them. Pest companies and people have learned to use terpenes as insect repellents by studying its purpose. Pest repellents such as citronella or “OFF” mosquito repellent would be a prime example of how modern society uses the benefits of terpenes and created an insect repellent to help fight off and kill unwanted pests.


Plants can also produce terpenes that attack insects and act as a pesticide. Limonene, pinene, cineole, linalool, myrcene, and pulegone (common terpenes in cannabis) have all been shown to have fume like properties. Other terpene pesticides and other plants include caryophyllene, myrcene, and pinene have all been shown to be toxic to mosquitos, houseflies, aphids, and tobacco cutworms.

Insect pollinators:

Some terpenes are made to attract plant pollinators like bees, wasps etc. Found in the essential oils of cannabis and other plants, they are strong aromatic molecules. For example, insects that are attracted to terpenes like limonene, will likely land on cannabis and are likely found in abundance. Pollinators that transport pollen from lemon flowers would explore cannabis flowers as they have high concentrations of limonene. Aromatic terpenes help to lure beneficial pollinators through scents. Terpenes like farnesene, ocimene, and myrcene are just a few examples of aromatic molecules that attract pollinators.

Predators and indirect defense:

Indirect defense is between the plant and the terpenes, making the terpene the defender. The plant uses the terpene to attract the predator. For example, when plants release a large number of variations of the terpene caryophyllene in response to insect larvae this attracts nematodes that prey on the larvae.

Defense against competitors:

When plants are competing for the same resources, terpenes can help to influence their growth. This can be done by releasing terpenes into the atmosphere. This process is called allelopathy, and terpenes and other chemicals involved are allelochemicals.

Two plants that influence the growth of cohabitant plant species marigold from South America, and the sage bush from Southern California. The marigold plant uses a variation of the terpene ocimene to prevent germination of other plants. These plants (mostly sage bush) release a terp blend of cineole and camphor into the air, which inhibits the germination of the seeds of other plants. **Growing tip: add spider mites to your garden because spider mites are attracted to marigolds. The scent, and the ease of the leaves will attract them to the marigolds, rather than your cannabis plants.

Some terpenes can also delay the growth in insect eggs, or larvae the same way they inhibit the development in plant species. Terpenes that can inhibit these factors include: limonene, linalool, geraniol, terpineol, pinene, cineole, merolidol, and variations of caryophyllene, which are all terpenes that occur in cannabis.

Defense against fungi and bacteria:

Variations of cineole, cymene, limonene, linalool, pinene, terpinene, and terpinolene, have all been found to possess antifungal activity. These are the top terpenes most commonly found in cannabis, making terpenes work effectively against bacteria.

When do plants produce and use terpenes?

Plant terpene production occurs at higher temperatures usually when the sun is shinning, and terpenes will evaporate as the daytime temperature rises. If you grow your plants outside for example, you probably notice a more potent smell in the morning. This is because the terpenes in your plants haven’t started to evaporate off yet, leaving the terpenes more potent. Experienced cannabis cultivars recommend harvesting plants in the morning.