Bisabolol is a natural terpene found in various plants, renowned for its numerous health benefits and medicinal properties. With a chemical structure composed of two isoprene units, bisabolol is a colorless, viscous liquid with a sweet floral aroma. It is most commonly extracted from chamomile, but can also be found in other plants such as the Candeia tree and cannabis.

In the realm of medicine and wellness, bisabolol has gained significant attention due to its anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and antimicrobial properties. These attributes make it a promising compound in the treatment of various conditions. Research indicates that bisabolol can aid in reducing inflammation, making it useful in managing skin conditions like eczema and acne. Additionally, its analgesic effects suggest potential use as a natural pain reliever.

In the context of cannabis, bisabolol plays a crucial role in the entourage effect—the synergistic interaction between different cannabinoids and terpenes in the plant. It enhances the therapeutic potential of cannabis by improving its absorption and bioavailability. When combined with cannabinoids like CBD, bisabolol has shown promise in reducing anxiety and promoting relaxation without causing intoxication.

Moreover, bisabolol has found applications beyond the realm of medicine. In the cosmetic industry, it is utilized in skincare products due to its soothing and skin-conditioning properties. Its antimicrobial effects make it a valuable ingredient in personal care products, such as mouthwashes and deodorants.

Overall, the terpene bisabolol stands as a remarkable natural compound, offering numerous benefits for daily health and wellness, especially when harnessed alongside cannabis. As research continues, its potential impact on medicine and society is likely to grow, opening up exciting possibilities for improved health and well-being



Linalool is a naturally occurring terpene found in numerous plant species. Cinnamon has been known to be the strongest linalool producer containing more than 92% linalool in the essential oil. Its biological use in plants is multifaceted. As a volatile organic compound, linalool serves a crucial role in attracting pollinators, such as bees and butterflies, aiding in the plant’s reproductive cycle. Additionally, it acts as a natural defense mechanism, deterring herbivores and pathogens, thereby safeguarding the plant’s health.

The terpene linalool has significant applications in various industries. In the fragrance and cosmetic industry, it contributes to the pleasant aroma of many products and essential oils. Its antimicrobial properties make it a valuable additive in cleaning and personal care products.

Linalool shows great potential in the field of medicine. Studies have suggested that it possesses anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and anxiolytic properties. This makes linalool a promising candidate for future medicinal developments, potentially aiding in the treatment of various health conditions.

In the realm of cannabis, linalool contributes to the unique aroma and flavor of different strains. It also works synergistically with other cannabinoids and terpenes to produce an “entourage effect,” believed to enhance the therapeutic benefits of cannabis products.
In daily health and nutrition, linalool-rich plants, such as lavender, may provide relaxation and stress-relief benefits through aromatherapy and herbal remedies. There are nearly 2 dozen fruits that contain linalool, including, figs, apples, lemons, nectarines, and grapefruit. Vegetables that contain linalool include carrots, corn and tomatoes.


Humulene, also known as α-humulene or humulene, is a prominent terpene found in various plant species, including cannabis. It is responsible for the earthy, woody, and slightly spicy aroma often associated with hops, cloves, and basil. While humulene is not unique to cannabis, it plays a significant role in shaping the plant’s profile of therapeutic and aromatic compounds.

In plants, humulene serves several beneficial purposes. It acts as a natural defense mechanism against pests, thanks to its insect-repellent properties. Additionally, humulene exhibits anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, making it an appealing therapeutic compound. These properties have garnered attention within the cannabis industry, as humulene contributes to the entourage effect—the synergy between cannabinoids and terpenes that enhances the overall therapeutic potential of cannabis.

Today, humulene finds extensive use in aromatherapy and natural medicine. Its potential benefits include reducing pain and inflammation, suppressing appetite, and aiding in weight loss. Humulene has also been studied for its potential anti-cancer properties, showing promise in inhibiting tumor growth, and inducing cancer cell death.

In the field of medicine, humulene’s potential applications are being explored. Research suggests that it may possess antibacterial properties, making it a potential candidate for fighting bacterial infections. Furthermore, its anti-inflammatory effects may contribute to the treatment of various inflammatory diseases, such as arthritis. By adding this effective terpene into your diet, you can eat fruits like grapefruit, guava, raspberries, oranges, and mangos. Vegetables like artichokes, celery, and carrots. And spices like cloves, bay leaves, and oregano. Or simply adding the essential oil EO with this terpene to your creams, oils etc.

As scientific studies continue to unveil the therapeutic potential of humulene, it holds promise for further advancements in medicine and natural remedies. Its presence in cannabis adds to the complexity and diversity of the plant’s therapeutic effects, making it a valuable component in the realm of alternative medicine and holistic wellness.

Beta Caryophyllene

Beta Caryophyllene

Beta-caryophyllene is a fascinating terpene that holds numerous benefits for cannabis plants, the industry, and modern medicine. Terpenes are aromatic compounds found in various plants, including cannabis, which contribute to their distinct flavors and scents. Beta-caryophyllene is known for its spicy, woody aroma, reminiscent of black pepper, cloves, and hops.
One of the most notable aspects of beta-caryophyllene is its interaction with the endocannabinoid system (ECS). Unlike other terpenes, beta-caryophyllene acts as a cannabinoid by binding to the CB2 receptors of the ECS. This interaction provides a unique advantage for cannabis plants as it enhances their therapeutic potential. By activating the CB2 receptors, beta-caryophyllene exhibits anti-inflammatory, analgesic, and neuroprotective properties. In the cannabis industry, beta-caryophyllene plays a vital role. It not only contributes to the overall aroma and flavor profile of cannabis strains but also enhances the entourage effect. The entourage effect refers to the synergistic interaction between different cannabinoids, terpenes, and other compounds in cannabis, resulting in enhanced therapeutic benefits. Beta-caryophyllene’s ability to bind to CB2 receptors amplifies the effects of other cannabinoids, such as CBD, leading to a more potent therapeutic experience.
Beta-caryophyllene’s unique pharmacological properties have garnered attention in modern medicine. The terpene exhibits promising potential as an anti-inflammatory agent, making it useful for conditions such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, and inflammatory bowel disease. Its pain-relieving properties also make it a potential natural alternative for pain management. Additionally, beta-caryophyllene has shown neuroprotective effects, which could be beneficial in the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s diseases. Beta-caryophyllene’s role as a selective CB2 receptor against without binding to CB1 receptors differentiates it from other cannabinoids like THC. This property means that beta-caryophyllene can deliver therapeutic benefits without the psychoactive effects commonly associated with cannabis. As a result, it has gained interest as a potential treatment option for mental health conditions such as anxiety and depression.
In recent years, research on beta-caryophyllene has expanded beyond its effects on the ECS. Studies have demonstrated its antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties. The terpene’s antioxidant activity helps protect cells from oxidative stress, reducing the risk of chronic diseases. Its potential anticancer effects have been observed in various cancer cell lines, indicating its ability to inhibit tumor growth. Additionally, beta-caryophyllene has exhibited antimicrobial activity against a range of bacteria and fungi, making it a possible natural remedy for infections.As the understanding of beta-caryophyllene grows, so does its application in various industries. It is increasingly used in the formulation of natural remedies, wellness products, and even in the food and beverage industry to enhance flavors and provide potential health benefits.
In conclusion, beta-caryophyllene plays a unique interaction with the endocannabinoid system, anti-inflammatory and analgesic properties, and potential therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders and mental health conditions make it a valuable compound. It’s antioxidant, anticancer, and antimicrobial properties contribute to its growing importance in multiple industries.



Myrcene is a natural organic compound found in various plants, including cannabis. As one of the most widespread monoterpenes you can find it in close to 200 plants including but not limited too, dill, oat, nutmeg, citronella, Cleary sage, spearmint, thyme, and water mint. It is one of the most abundant terpenes present in cannabis, contributing to its distinctive aroma and flavor. Myrcene is known for its potential therapeutic properties and plays a crucial role in the entourage effect, a synergistic interaction of various compounds in cannabis that enhances its overall therapeutic potential.

Biological activity in plants:

In terms of its biological activity, myrcene acts as a potent anti-inflammatory agent, making it beneficial for conditions such as arthritis and chronic pain. It also exhibits sedative effects, aiding in relaxation and promoting better sleep. Additionally, myrcene has been found to have analgesic properties, helping to alleviate pain.

Uses in medicine:

The medical applications of myrcene extend beyond its anti-inflammatory and sedative effects. It has shown potential as an antioxidant, protecting cells from damage caused by free radicals. Research suggests that myrcene may have anticancer properties as well, inhibiting the growth of tumor cells.
In the cannabis industry, myrcene plays a significant role. It not only contributes to the distinct aroma and flavor profiles of different cannabis strains but also influences their effects. Cannabis strains with higher levels of myrcene are often associated with sedating and relaxing effects, making them suitable for those seeking pain relief or improved sleep. Myrcene helps with the healing powers for breast cancer patients, an antioxidant, treatments of ischemic stroke and sedatives for sleep.

Uses in our industry:

Myrcene is also utilized in the production of essential oils, perfumes, and flavorings due to its pleasant fragrance and taste. Its versatility and wide range of potential health benefits have made myrcene a sought-after compound in both the medical and cannabis industries.
Mycrene can be achieved by eating fruits like apricots, blood oranges, blueberries, figs, guava, grapefruit, kiwi, lemons, limes, mandarins, mangos, oranges, tangerines and yuzu. It can also be found in many spices for cooking.


Overall, myrcene is a fascinating terpene found in cannabis, offering various potential health benefits. Its anti-inflammatory, sedative, and antioxidant properties make it a valuable component in medicinal applications, while its role in the cannabis industry contributes to the unique characteristics and effects of different strains.


Pinene is a naturally occurring terpene found in various plants making it the most natural terpene on earth. Pinene occurs in over 157 plants and its name comes from the pine tree and the sap/resign that is produces. Some of the most common plants you will find pinene include and not limited to; cannabis, eucalyptus, salvia, lemongrass, strawberry, turmeric, and Salvia.
Pinene exists in two forms: alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. (a-pinene and b-pinene) This aromatic compound not only contributes to the distinct scent of pine forests but also offers numerous benefits. In plants, pinene acts as a potent insect repellent, deterring pests and protecting against herbivory. It also exhibits antimicrobial properties, inhibiting the growth of bacteria and fungi. Pinene has been known to function as an ovicidal agent (inhibiting the growth of insect ova) against some other insect larvae.
Uses in medicine:
Pinene possesses anti-inflammatory and bronchodilator properties, making it useful in traditional medicine for respiratory conditions. Its potential therapeutic applications include reducing pain, improving memory, and even acting as an anticancer agent, highlighting the diverse biological activity of this remarkable compound. Pinene’s ability to enhance memory and cognitive function has sparked interest in the field of neurology, potentially aiding in the development of treatments for Alzheimer’s disease and other cognitive disorders. Furthermore, studies have explored pinene’s anticancer properties, suggesting it may inhibit tumor growth and serve as a deterrent to conventional cancer therapies.
Uses in the industry:
Pinene is a versatile terpene and has many uses in our industry. Its distinct pine aroma makes it a popular ingredient in the fragrance and flavor industry, contributing to the creation of perfumes, air fresheners, and cleaning products. Pinene’s solvency properties make it a valuable component in the production of resins, adhesives, and paints. It is also utilized in the manufacturing of flavors for food and beverages. Pinene serves as a forerunner for the synthesis of chemicals like camphor, menthol, and synthetic pine oils. Its potential as a renewable and sustainable feedstock has drawn interest for the production of biofuels and bioplastics. Pinene’s wide-ranging applications make it a valuable resource in various industrial sectors.

No-till bed

Where to start
Unlike house plants that can survive on just water cannabis requires a nutrient rich diet. The decision-making process on which direction you choose can be difficult, hydroponic, soil/soilless, or organic and organic no till beds. Luckily, we have spent our energy and resources on all the above to help make this difficult decision easier.
There are a few factors to consider when deciding which feeding regimen you want to choose.
• Grow space size
• Are you using tents
• How much extra time do you have to spend tending to your garden each week
• How much experience/knowledge you already have about gardening
• How much research are you willing to do on your own time
• How much money are you willing to invest
• Legalities in your region (ex: number of plants allowed)

After taking all of these into consideration we will break down each method for you to see what best suits your needs.

No till Organic Beds
This method of growing is fantastic for saving time in the long run, because once your bed is set up you are just feeding it PH corrected water except for the one day a month where you re-amend your bed and/or when you brew a compost tea. No till beds are great because the microbial life increases exponentially, so over time your harvests will get better and better if you keep amending your soil.
List of ingredients needed:
• 100% sphagnum peatmoss
• Perlite
• Worm castings
• Alfalfa
• Dolomite lime
• Red rock phosphate
• Glacial rock dust
• Insect frass
• Green sand
• Worms (red wigglers are preferred)
• Mycorrhizae
• Bacillus subtilus
• Compost
• Cover crop seeds (legumes are common)
• Neem meal
• Kelp meal
• Crab meal
• Fish bone meal
• Humic acid
• Molasses
• Air pump
• Nylon sock
• 5-gallon pail
• (An easier, but not necessarily better is to purchase something like gaia green dry amendments and use those as they contain a mixture of most of these ingredients)
To build a no till bed we recommend purchasing the 100% sphagnum peatmoss which comes in a bail the same size as pro mix for ¼ the cost. However, it is JUST peat moss, no perlite, myco, dolomite lime for ph or anything.
Once you have decided the size of your space, we will use a 4×4 grow tent for this example. You build the frame for your bed out of 2×6 pieces of lumber. Next line the interior with thick greenhouse plastic and staple it over the other side, essentially making a box with a plastic bottom. Place this in the grow tent, line the bottom with cardboard, then lay twigs and small sticks covering the cardboard, then add a layer of compost covering the sticks completely (about 4 inches thick).
In a separate bin, mix your peatmoss, perlite, and worm castings at a 2:1:1 ratio. This is going to be your soil base. Now we start to add your amendments.
• Alfalfa – 3 tbsp per gallon or soil-is high in nitrogen, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, calcium, sulfur, boron, iron, and zinc. As well as other vitamins and minerals. Alfalfa most important aspect is the growth hormone called triacontanol which is one of the most potent growth stimulators known about today.
• Dolomite lime- 2 tbsp per gallon- peatmoss has a very acidic PH of around 3.4 so adding the dolomite lime will help raise it to the appropriate PH as well as provide calcium and magnesium to your plants
• Red rock phosphate- 1 tbsp per gallon- red rock phosphate is very good for early-stage root development, stem strength, resistance to disease, nutrient uptake, flower formation, and yield. It assists in photosynthesis and pretty much every major plant function.
• Glacial rock dust- 1 tbsp per gallon- glacial rock dust is an excellent source of calcium, magnesium, potassium, as well as trace elements and micronutrients which feed the beneficial micro-organisms.
• Insect Frass- 3 tbsp per gallon- Insect frass contains chitin which is a naturally occurring molecule found in the cells of crustaceans as well as the exoskeletons of insects. Chitin fortifies your plants from there cell walls, it triggers the immune system causing them to rev up and defend themselves. The presence of chitin tricks the plants into thinking they are being attacked by pests, so they release natural insect toxins and build up their cell walls as a defence.
• Green sand- 3 tbsp per gallon- green sand is a natural source of potassium, iron, magnesium, and manganese. It is a mind iron potassium silicate mineral from ancient seabed’s. It improves friability of hard soils as well as nutrient retention. The silica content is its main function.
• Mycorrhizal fungi- there are many different strains of mycorrhizae, and some products contain a full blend and charge you a premium for this. However, there is only one strain that has been proven to be beneficial, so we recommend xtreme gardenings mykos product as it contains just that one strain of myco which builds root mass and increases uptake of nutrients and water.
• Bacillus subtilus- this is found in many products labelled as a soil conditioner however you can buy it as a stand-alone powder, depending on the producer follow the instructions for the product. This bacterium is especially important because if you inoculate the root zone early in the plants life this will aid in fighting off fungal infections such as powdery mildew which can be entirely prevented if inoculated before infected. When sprayed directly on powdery mildew the bacillus feeds on the PM until the PM are gone. Once there are no more spores on the leaf the bacillus dies. So, it requires multiple applications as a foliar but having it in the root zone is most affective. (there’s a whole list of bacillus strains that are beneficial to growing cannabis, however this one seems the most useful all around)

Rockwool Guide

Stone wool grow manual

Rockwool, or stone wool, is a type of soilless horticultural grow medium that is used in hydroponic systems in the majority of commercial greenhouses. You can grow an 8ft + cucumber plant in a 4” cube. It is also especially good for growing cannabis plants. Rockwool is finely spun volcanic rock (basalt) that resembles fiberglass insulation. Rockwool is one of the most versatile growing medias. It is literally the ONLY growing media that can dry out to near 0% water content without showing stress on the plants.

Rockwool is a great choice for people who want to save money, be able to dial in your grow exactly how you want it. The only downside is set up take a bit pricier and longer due to having to set up irrigation etc., however the cost per pot per plant goes from $8.00/ 3gal pot (soilless/coco/peat mix), down to roughly 1.40 cents depending on your supplier. And you can grow much larger plants in this, much faster.

– 1 day in hydro = 3 days growth in soil/soilless (vegetative growth only flowering time stays the same)
– More cost effective
– Cleaner
– Efficient
– Looks nice
– Simple and easy
– Limited fertiliser choices as you must go with mostly synthetics as some organics can make it messy and cause issues.
– People claim hydroponically grown cannabis has a different flavor profile
– Mos costly to set up, however it pays for itself with the money you save on soil/soilless media

Getting started
– Take a look around YouTube searching “different rockwool growing methods” and decide which is most efficient for your grow space, we can help with this decision just email us dimensions and a photo/photo of the grow space.
– Once you have decided how you like to use rockwool, weather it be slabs, blocks, or just the rockwool cubes in a dwc setting etc. We are more than happy to help assist you in your decision once you have done some research.
– Once decided we must construct the grow space and get ALL necessary equipment.
– Now all the hard work is done it time for the fun!

“Best” practises of use
Rockwool cubes – clones and seedlings
Equipment needed for this task.
– Humidor dome
– Plug holder for tray
– 1” Rockwool cubes
– Bucket
– water
– Ph meter
– Ph down
– Green up nutrient (or similar product meant for feeding clones and seedlings before they have established roots)
– Spray bottle of 70% isopropyl rubbing alcohol
– Snips (clones only)
– Tweezers (seeds only)
– Gloves
– Rooting gel (clones only)
– Box cutter
– Paper towels
– Variable temp heat Matt

Getting started

– Spray down all tools with rubbing alcohol and wipe with paper towels, put gloves on and spray them with rubbing alcohol, air dry fanning them
– Cut cubes with knife so they don’t rip all messy
– (This step is not followed by all growers, because people are successful both ways but we recommend esp. for newer growers to follow the instructions) fill up bucket with water, ph. 5.5 and dunk until there are no more bubbles. If the rockwool isnt fully soaked the dry spots will create pockets for the salt nutrients to build up and reduce the amount of space in the cubes for root mass to fill it up, so make sure all the bubble stop.
– Place cubes into plug holder
– (seeds) if you have germinated them carefully poke a hole in the cube and stick the tail downwards careful not to snap the tail
– (clones) cut your clone roughly 6” (or 3 nodes at least) on a 45-degree angle dip in rooting gel, and carefully push into rockwool cube making sure you don’t snap the stem holding it close to the cube.
– One tray is full put lid on, place on heat matt. (We have found best results come when the heat matt shuts off at the same time as the lights but this is optional)
– Make sure there is a small amount of water on the tray so the walls of the lid get foggy, check on them daily to make sure there is fog on the walls
– Once seeds show themselves open vents onto of humidor
– After about 7 days open the vents on the clones
– Once roots show out the bottom of the cubes it is time to transplant into your next size cube whichever that may be, a 4”, 6”, or 8”.

( rockwool is inert so there are no nutrients, it is recommended to use a product such as “green up” to pre soak cubes in to help feed clones and seedlings without over feeding them, when soaking the larger cubes it is recommended to use to appropriate fertilizer needed for that stage of growth)

Pest and Disease Control

Pests and Disease Control
In the cases with all pests, prevention is always better then trying to rid an infestation. There are simple steps you can take to prevent infestations of most predatory insects.
The most affective IPM is a proper diet. Feeding your plants a nutrient rich diet, along with a healthy combination of beneficial microbes (bacteria and fungi) and silica which has been overlooked in the past but in recent years is becoming known more and more as a requirement in your plants diet.
Beneficial microbes encompass a whole variety of bacteria and fungus which have beneficial actions in the soil improving the overall health and quality of your crop. Pests and bacteria are sources of biotic stress which injure the plant reducing vigor, these stresses negatively affect growth development and overall yield. The addition to Bacillus and into the rhizosphere can be used to alleviate the stresses caused by these pests and diseases. Bacillus also produce endospores which help the bacteria survive harsh environmental conditions. It produces anti-microbial metabolites that can be used instead of synthetic chemicals for controlling plant diseases. Using Bacillus subtilis alongside silica can give it an extra boost against bad bacteria which degrades cell walls, limiting growth of your crop. Bacillus Subtilis can act as a biocontrol against pathogenic fungus and can be used to suppress the disease, or entirely prevent if it is colonized in the rhizosphere before an infection occurs. It’s ability to create biofilms on root surfaces and induce host systemic resistance which is how it prevents the fungal infection in the root zone. Bacillus Subtilis synergizes very well with Mycorrhizal fungi. The more diverse the population of beneficial microbes you have in your soil drastically increases these benefits, because bacteria compete for nutrients with the negative bacteria’s therefore the more beneficial bacteria inoculated in your root zone will prevent the buildup of negative bacteria.
Bacillus Thuringiensis is another very important bacteria that is fatal to different species of caterpillars, larvae, and maggots, as well as several other pests auch as fungus gnat larvae, you can find them on amazon called “mosquito dunks” or “bayers BT”.
Mycorrhizal fungi is another beneficial fungi that drastically speeds up root development, increases plant resistance to stress, accelerates plant growth, improves nutrient uptake, increases yield, reduces the amount of fertilizer needed, increases oil production and plant tolerance to salinity. Taking advantage of these benefits by combining them together in your plants diet will greatly increase your plants ability to fight off pets and diseases. There are many more strains of bacillus bacteria that have a wide range of benefits you can also take advantage of.
Neem oil on its own has been used for a long time, unfortunately (from what we have gathered from reliable online sources and now understand why certain neem oil products didn’t work for us) apparently all the neem oil available in canada, except the ones labeled “high azadirachtin content” are the left over oils AFTER the azadirachtin has been extracted from it for neem concentrated pesticides, rendering them ineffective against SOME pests. Because they cannot extract 100% of the azadirachtin the small amount in it is still poisonous to some pests, but not all. Neem has been used for thousands of years orally and topically for skin and hair benefits, however, now there is safety concerns regarding Azadirachtin poisoning when used as a foliar spray because of potential ingestion, but nothing has been confirmed as of yet. However, using it as a soil drench, or using neem cakes which have 2-4mg of azadirachtin per kernal are a safe and effective way to control pests. Keep in mind, neem is also a nematocidal which will kill off any beneficial nematodes. We like to mix the neem cakes in with our growing media prior to planting as it is not only a great pesticide but also contains micro and macro nutrients. Be sure NOT to use with seedlings as the NPK will burn your seedlings. Neem cakes are granules made from the neem tree seed residue. Its environmentally friendly as it is made from all parts of the neem tree. Neem cake is rich in nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur, and calcium. This increases the nutrient content and fertility of your soil which increases growth and yield. These are totally organic which makes it suitable for all methods of gardening.
Planting some marigolds are always a good idea as they have a very potent aroma which will deter many pests including aphids; however, it attracts spider mites. The spider mites will flock to the marigolds rather than your cannabis, or other plants. Placing one at your doorway and a few around the grow room is plenty. They are low maintenance plants if you water it regularly.
If you haven’t used any IPM methods and are dealing with an infestation the best thing to do is put each plant carefully in a garbage bag and bring it to the shower if you have a removeable showerhead, or outside, hosing it off far from the house. Follow these steps for all the infested plants. Then if in veg proceed with the horticultural oil recipe every few days for two weeks. It is not recommended to use the oil recipe on flowering plants.
Beneficial insects-
Using nematodes and beneficial mites are a superior IPM method that doesn’t involve spraying anything on your plants or any extra work. Neem will kill the nematodes, but will not effect any beneficial insects.
Nematodes there are a few different kinds of nematodes which are affective in killing fungus gnats, root aphids, soil mites, and other soil dwelling pests
Rover beetles are a great self reproducing beneficial insect that is best used as an IPM rather than once an infestation has started. They eat just about every soil dwelling pest including root aphids to an extent. (Sometimes the adults are too big for them to consume)
Stratiolaelaps Scimitus are a great predatory soil mite that helps control fungus gnats, thrips pupae, root weevils, spring tails and more. These are usually introduced at propagation to prevent fungus gnats infestations and thrips pupae for the life of the crop. These are readily available on Amazon, as well as many grow shops.
Neoseiulus Fallacis is one of the best foliar predatory mites preventing two spotted spider mites, bamboo mites, hemp russet mite, broad mites, and others. They can establish for many years after just one application because of there generalist diet. They are also capable of surviving on pollen when there is low prey.
Ladybugs are one of the most common beneficial insects as they love to prey on aphids which is one of the most common garden pests, they can eat up to 60 a day or 5000 during there entire lifetime. They will also eat other critters including white flies, weevils, and mites, however mites to ladybugs is like us eating bread crumbs for dinner, which makes them not very appetizing. A good way to keep ladybugs in your outdoor garden is by planting fennel nearby as these tend to attract ladybugs.
The praying mantis is another famous predatory insect. They will eat a variety of pests including but not limited too, aphids, flies, moths, and mosquitoes. Planting things like dill, fennel, and marigolds will help attract them into your garden.
Green lacewings are another good predatory insect that are especially helpful for controlling mealy bugs, as well as aphids. Again planting dill, fennel, cilantro, and sunflowers will naturally affect these green lacewings.
Beauveria bassiana is a fungus with spores that infect pests cuticle eventually growing and filling their insides with the fungus killing them and turns them into a gateway for spreading more spores, any insects that come into contact with the spores growing off of the dead insects will become infected and die. This is most beneficial when used as a preventative. If using for root aphids study’s prove you NEED to simultaneously add a neem extract high in azadirachtin. The azadirachtin is an anti-feedant, and anti-moltant(meaning it prevents the insect from molting/evolving into its next stage of life) which is essential since ROOTAPHIDS shed their cuticle each time they molt, so if they get infected there is a chance they will just shed that cuticle off, and molt into their next stage of life before it has time to infect them entirely. The combination of an azadirachtin extract of 3% or higher + Beauveria bassiana is the most effective way at controlling root aphids even once an infestation has begun.
Pyrethrum is actually a very useful pesticide, coming from the chrysanthemum flower, is toxic to beneficial insects and bees on contact and the residue can last up to 12 days, so not recommended to use outdoors where there will be bees present. It is organic (although there are synthetic pyrehtrins which we will touch on in a minute), it has low toxicity to humans, it doesn’t linger around, rapidly destroyed by UV rays, and isnt absorbed by plant roots. It is equally toxic to all pests, so don’t be fooled, on amazon the exact same raid product goes for 8.99 it is 0.25% pyrethrins, and means for flies and mosquitos 350g canister, and then they have 3 different bottles of the exact same ingredients 0.25% pyrethrins exact same weight of 350g for flying insects, multi bug, ant & spider which costs 12.49, at Canadian tire the same bottle different brand is 19.99. So do yourself a favor and actually look at the ingredients and make sure you’re not paying extra for the same stuff. This aerosol has saved our rear quite a few times, but if using directly on the plant it is best not to use an aerosol because you will burn the plant. You can get dr. doom powder and make your own spray, or they have spray concentrates you mix with water to make your own pyrethrin spray, these are better for using directly on your plant. And if using as a root drench the powder is probably your best bet.
Synthetic pyrehtrins are synthetic versions of pyrethrum. Some more toxic than others, some safter than others, some are longer lasting for example permerithrin is a synthetic pyrethroid and it lasts up to 60 days, it is recommended as a crack and crevice treatment to kill any pests passing through. I wouldn’t spray this on your plants tho, pyrethrum is much safer.

You can make home made pesticides from horticultural oils, there are many different kinds, however from our research food grade white mineral oil is the safest and most cost effective in 1 gallon jugs, it has been refined to remove as many of the unwanted petroleum additives as possible. From one gallon of white mineral oil, you can make 18 gallons of concentrate. Some people use sodium bicarbonate however, baking soda is phytotoxic, making potassium bicarbonate the better choice as it kills fungal spores on contact as well as pests and changes the ph of the surface of the leaf making it impossible for fungal spores to germinate. The only other ingredient besides water is pure castile soap, which is better then using regular dish soap. This spray can be used as a preventative all through the vegetative stage, however I do not recommend spraying it on flowering plants. The oil and the soap mixture suffocate the bugs. The oils block the air holes in which the insects breathe causing them to die from asphyxiation. Oils may also act as poisions by interacting with the insects’ fatty acids. Interfering with there metabolism. The oils also disrupt how an insect feeds a feature that is particularly important in the transmission of some of plant viruses spread by aphids. There toxic action is more physical than chemical and is short lived. Since these oil-based pesticides have low residual activity is must be sprayed directly on the insect, which is why a fogger is recommended. Avoid treating your plants drought stressed and under bright light because this can burn the foliage.
The recipe:
1 Cup/250 ML of horticultural oil
¼ Cup/60 ML of castile soap
1tsp of potassium bicarbonate
3475 ML of filtered/chlorine free water
Mix Oil, potassium, and water in a 4L jug, add the soap and shake well.
This is your concentrate. Do not spray this directly on the plants. It needs to be diluted to 15ML for every Litre of water. The white oil concentrate can be stored up to three months in a sealed container. When spraying be sure to spray with lights dimmed or off, and making sure to get the under side of the leaves as this is where most pests will lay their eggs, and where spider mites like to hang out. Also make sure your plants are well hydrated prior to application.
We recommend always spraying one leaf and waiting 6 hours before attempting to spray your entire crop. This works as a great preventative because it kills bug on contact and because of its oily residue and the potassium bicarbonate changing the ph of the leaf surface it kills powdery mildew spores and doesn’t allow spores to germinate on the leaves surface, you will need to apply this as necessary as it doesn’t last forever. Just not recommended in flower. Certain websites state it is fine however even after washing plants in multiple buckets there was oil residue in every bucket so we wouldn’t recommend it. Also using a paint sprayer in place of a fogger is super cost effective, its better to spend money on a paint sprayer and have it serve 2 functions than spend more on a fogger and only be able to fog with it. Corded ones pack the most punch in our experience.


Nutrients – “Turps notes version”
To have a successful harvest, plants require a specific diet the same way an athlete requires a protein rich diet. Providing your plants with the right nutrients is key to having a successful harvest. There are two ways of doing this: 1. Organic 2. Synthetic (salt based formulas). This process is where new growers can become overwhelmed trying to make the right decision with so many options available. So, we are going to try and break it down for you guys giving the “Coles notes” version rather than the lengthy chapters from respected grow guides.
There are three main categories of nutrients; Macro-nutrients (Primary nutrients) Secondary nutrients and Micronutrients (trace elements) Each of these can be further classified into mobile or immobile nutrients. Mobile nutrients are your Nitrogen, Phosphorus, Potassium, Magnesium, and Zinc. What makes these mobile is they can translocate from one section of the plant to another. For example: Excess nitrogen accumulated in older leaves can translocate to younger leaves which may be suffering a deficiency. This results in deficiency symptoms appearing on the older lower leaves first. Your immobile nutrients are Calcium, Boron, Chlorine, Cobalt, Copper, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Silicon, and Sulfur which do not translocate to new growing areas instead remaining in their original place. An immobile nutrient deficiency will show symptoms in the newer leaves at the top of the plant.
These are the nutrients the plant uses the most. Fertilizers usually show the NPK ratios in big numbers on the front of the package and always listed in the order N-P-K. These nutrients must always be in available form providing the building blocks for rapid growth.
Nitrogen (N) – (mobile macro nutrient)
During the vegetative phase, your plants require more nitrogen, while during flower less nitrogen is required. It is especially important to keep your nitrogen levels in check during flower. Elevated levels of nitrogen especially in the beginning stages of flower can actually trigger hermaphroditism in plants which are prone. Nitrogen is responsible for your plants ability to create essential proteins. This plays a key role in tying proteins, hormones, chlorophyll, vitamins, and enzymes together. It is essential in the production of amino acids, enzymes, nucleic acids, chlorophyll, and alkaloids. Nitrogen’s main function is responsible for the growth of leaves and stems, as well as impacting size and vigor.
How to identify a nitrogen deficiency:
• Slowed growth
• Early stages of deficiency leaves will start to turn yellow between the veins. While the veins remain green
• Later stages the yellowing progresses through the entire leaf eventually causing it to die and drop off

How to treat nitrogen deficiency:
• For Synthetic(salt) growers use a high nitrogen fertilizer, or a complete NPK fertilizer. (Within 4-5 days you should see health and vigor returning)
• For Organic growers use a fast-acting source such as Guano, Fish emulsion, or blood meal.
• Nitrogen fixing bacteria (this will help your plants uptake the appropriate amount of nitrogen, and even help reverse and overdose)
How to identify nitrogen toxicity – Signs to look for a nitrogen toxicity include dark foliage and down curling of the tips of your leaves. This can cause your foliage to turn soft which leaves it vulnerable to insect and fungal attacks. Stems may become weak and fold easily. In severe cases leaves will turn a brownish copper color, become dry and fall off.
How to treat Nitrogen toxicity:
• Flushing the growing medium with PH corrected water with 3x the volume of water to growing medium letting the over flow drain. You can use a PPM or EC meter to watch the levels decline to where they should be depending on stage of growth
• Flushing with PH correcting water and nitrogen fixing bacteria
Phosphorus (P) – (mobile macronutrient)
The most amount of phosphorus used during seedling germination, cloning, and flowering.
Phosphorus is important for photo synthesis providing a mechanism for the energy to transfer within the plant, not only that but it is also associated with overall vigor, resin, and seed production.
How to identify phosphorous Deficiency:
• Stunted growth/ slow growing plants
• Smaller leaves
• Leaves turning blueish green
• Under side of stems and main veins turn reddish purple (this is not always visible)
• Leaf tips of older leaves turn dark and curl downward (in serious cases leaves develop large purplish- black necrotic blotches)
• Leaves will evolve to a bronzish purple, become dry, shrivelled, contorted, and drop off.
• Delay in flowering
• Buds are noticeably smaller
• Plants may become infected with a fungal disease or insect infestation due to because they are weak which will increase vulnerability
How to treat phosphorous deficiency:
• It is always easier to prevent a deficiency then correct one (this goes for all nutrients). A few things you can do to prevent this are: making sure your soil isn’t soggy or acidic by ensuring proper drainage and keeping the soil PH between 5.5-6.5 also keeping iron and zinc levels in check.

Synthetic(salts) growers – water with a compete NPK fertilizer
Organic growers – bat guano, steamed bone meal, natural phosphates, or barnyard manure to increase phosphorus levels. Always make sure to use finely ground organic components.
How to identify phosphorus toxicity – Phosphorus may take a few weeks to show signs of toxicity. Cannabis uses a lot of phosphorus during its life and most cultivars can tolerate high levels. However, excess interferes with the stability and uptake of calcium, copper, iron, magnesium, and zinc.
How to treat Phosphorus toxicity
• Flushing the growing medium, a minimum of three times the volume of water to volume of growing medium
Potassium (K) (mobile macro nutrient)
All stages of growth require potassium. High levels of potassium are associated with a high resistance to bacteria and mold, and an increase in combining sugars, starches, and carbs. This is essential to their production and movement. It increases chlorophyll in the foliage helping regulate the stomata openings which helps plants by aiding in photosynthesis, and absorbing nutrients through foliar feeding. Having a sufficient source of potassium is essential for carbohydrates to accumulate and be translocated. It is responsible in making the proteins that augment the oil content improving flavour in your cannabis, encourages strong root growth which increases disease resistance and the amount of water intake.
How to identify potassium deficiency:
• It takes awhile to show signs
• Plants may develop spots
• Turn dark yellow and even die
• Stems become brittle
• Signs of burning on the edges of leaves
• Leaves turn gray, and progress to a rusty brown color and eventually die
• Older leaves yellow with rust color blotches
How to treat potassium deficiency:
• Synthetic(salt) growers can use a complete NPK fertilizer, or add pure potassium powder and PH correct the water
• Organic growers can add potassium in the form of soluble potash (wood ashes) mixed with water (when using wood ash be sure to check the PH as it can raise above 10, correct it to around 6.5 before feeding)
Hot to identify potassium toxicity –
Potassium toxicity will appear with symptoms of magnesium, manganese, zinc, and iron deficiencies.
How to treat potassium toxicity:
• Flush growing medium with a min of three times the volume water to three times growing medium

Secondary nutrients (trace elements)
Secondary nutrients such as magnesium, calcium and sulfur are also used by the plants in large amounts. Vigorously growing plants can process more secondary nutrients than most general-purpose fertilizers supply. Therefore, growers choose to use high quality two- or three-part hydroponic fertilizers to supply all necessary secondary nutrients. Reverse osmosis water is void of these nutrients while tap water can contain an abundance. When growing in a soil/soilless (peatmoss, coco, etc.) medium with a PH below 7. Use one cup of dolomite lime per gallon of medium. This will ensure there is a sufficient level of calcium and magnesium in your medium.
Magnesium (mobile secondary nutrient)
Magnesium is especially essential in the production of cannabis. Deficiencies are especially common in acidic soils (below PH of 7) adding dolomite limes to acidic soils before planting will help stabilize the PH as well as add magnesium and calcium. Epson salts can be added to correct magnesium deficiencies if no dolomite was used when planting. Magnesium is essential in the process of photosynthesis. It helps enzymes make carbohydrates and sugars that are later transformed into flowers. It also neutralizes the soil acids and toxic compounds produced by the plant.
How to identify magnesium deficiency:
• No signs for first 3 to 4 weeks
• More common indoors vs outdoors
• During the 4th to 6th week lower leaves and the middle leaves develop yellowy patches while the veins remain dark green
• 6th week + Yellowy patches turn into rusty brown spots
• Within a few weeks the entire plant could become discoloured
• If this prolongs the plant will start to turn yellowish-white and then die
How to treat magnesium deficiency
• Synthetic (salt) growers feed cal mag (read label on bottle for required amount) It may vary depending on brand
• Organic growers treat by watering with two teaspoons of Epson salts (magnesium sulfate) per gallon of water. for fast results give a foliar feeding with a 2% solution of Epson salt
How to identify magnesium toxicity
• This is extremely rare, almost unheard of (according to our credible books)

Calcium (immobile secondary nutrient)
A Similar ratio of calcium to other macro nutrients is required while growing cannabis. The production and growth of cells requires a good amount of calcium. Its primary purpose is to preserve membrane permeability and cell integrity, which guarantees a consistent flow of nitrogen and sugars. This simulates enzymes that help build strong cell and root walls. The growing tip of each root must contain calcium.

How to identify calcium deficiency
This is very uncommon except unless the grower is using reverse osmosis water and is not supplementing with a cal mag product.
How to identify calcium deficiency:
• Weak stems
• Very dark green foliage
• Exceptionally slow growth
• Young leaves are the first to show signs
• Severe calcium deficiency causes new growth to turn yellowish purple before shrivelling up and dying
• Bud development is inhibited
• Plants are stunted
• Harvest is diminished
How to treat calcium deficiency:
• Synthetic (salt) growers use the required amount of a cal mag supplement depending on brand
• Organic growers dissolve ½ teaspoon of hydrated lime per gallon of water. Keep watering until the symptoms disappear
Hot to identify calcium toxicity
• Wilting
• Potassium, magnesium, manganese, and iron deficiencies may present themselves
• Stunted growth
How to treat calcium toxicity
• Flush with a minimum of 3x the volume of water to the volume of growing medium
Sulfur (immobile secondary nutrient)
Sulfur is essential in the production of many hormones and vitamins. Sulfur is responsible for protein synthesis and the forming of the amino acids cysteine and thiamin (vit B) which are the building blocks of proteins. Oils and flavours rely on sulfur for their production as well as the synthesis and breakdown of fatty acids.
I am sure you have been told when measuring out your liquid nutrients “be sure to rinse out the measuring container in between bottles!!” This is because sulfur and calcium cannot be combined in a concentrated form or it will create crude insoluble gypsum (calcium sulfate) and end up as a residue on the bottom of the tank, which is why most bottled nutrients come in 2-3 part kits.
How to identify a sulfur deficiency:
• Young leaves turn lime green to yellowish
• Leaves yellow
• It resembles a nitrogen deficiency
• Can cause elongated stems which become woody at the base
• It occurs indoors if PH is too high and/or there is excessive calcium in the medium
• Overall smaller plant
• Dark green foliage
• Discoloured/burnt leaf tips and margins

How to treat a sulfur deficiency:
• Synthetic (salt) growers use a hydroponic fertilizer containing sulfur, or add an organic sulfur to a fertilizer that contains Epson salts
• Organic growers use a mushroom compost or most animal manures. (Keep in mind when using manures use only properly cured manures)
Sulfur toxicity:
• Excess of sulfur in the soil causes no problems if the EC is relatively low. If the EC is high the plants will take up more sulfur blocking the uptake of other nutrients
How to treat sulfur toxicity:
• PH your water to 6 and flush with a min of three times the volume of water for the volume of growing medium
Micro- Nutrients

Synthetic nutrients, or salts are broken down and available for the plant to absorb immediately. Where organic nutrients require a complex process to break down the organic matter turning it into available forms of NPK. This is a biological process which requires micro-organisms of all kinds that perform a chemical and physical change to the organic matter. Different organisms are involved in different stages of this process.
Breakdown starts right after the organism or part of the organism dies. This organic material is colonized by micro-organisms using enzymes to oxidise the organic matter for the purpose of obtaining energy. When growing organically, incorporating earth worms (or red wigglers) into your soil will assist this process exponentially. During decomposition, the organic matter is broken down into simpler organic molecules which are required to decompose into mineralized nutrients. What does this mean?
Mineralization is a biological process where organic compounds are chemically converted by micro-organisms in the soil. These micro-organisms are comprised of bacteria and fungi which release enzymes causing oxidation. This releases energy and carbon feeding the micro-organisms. At the end of this process, you are left with nutrients in the mineral form. Plants require these nutrients to be in mineral form to up take them from the soil.
Micronutrients, also know as trace elements/trace nutrients main function is chlorophyll formation and as catalysts for the plant to process other elements. It is a clever idea to use cheat lave trace elements which are available in powder and liquid form. These should be added to the growing medium prior to planting. Trace elements are essential in very small amounts, so be sure to follow directions of the product exactly. It is also very easy for trace elements to reach toxic levels.

A chelate is an organic compound which contains ligand which bonds to electrically charged metal particles. This bond keeps metal ions such as zinc, iron, manganese soluble in water, which minimizes the reactions these metals would have with other materials in the growing media. Chelate metals are immediately absorbed by your roots because of there stability and solubility.
Humic acid is the most common natural chelate which can be added into the soil in a liquid or powder form. However, UV light causes chelates to rapidly decompose meaning you can apply it a few tines a week.

Zinc (mobile)
Magnesium, manganese and zinc all work to promote the same enzyme functions. Zinc also reacts with other elements to help form chlorophyll. Zinc is essential for stem growth and protein production as well as being a catalyst for most enzymes and auxins.
How to identify a deficiency:
• It is the most common found micronutrient deficiency
• Younger leaves show interveinal chlorosis
• New leaves and growing tips come in small
• Thin blades which contort and wrinkle
• Leaf tips and margins discolor and burn
• Burn spots grow progressively larger
• Often confused with manganese or iron deficiency
• Buds will contort into odd shapes, turn crispy, dry, and hard
• Stunted new growth including buds
How to treat a Zinc deficiency:
• Flush growing medium with a diluted mix of a complete fertilizer containing chelated trace elements( zinc, iron, and manganese)
• Add a quality brand hydroponic micronutrient mix containing chelated trace elements
Excess zinc prevents iron from functioning properly causing an iron deficiency and severely toxic plants can die very quickly.

Manganese (immobile nutrient)
Manganese is associated with lots of complicated functions which are fundamental in your plants chloroplast membrane system. Manganese helps utilize nitrogen and iron in the production of chlorophyll.
How to identify a Manganese deficiency:
• Young leaves show signs of interveinal chlorosis however the veins remain green
• Symptoms spread from younger to older leaves
• Necrotic spots develop
• Leaves turn pale and fall off
• Overall plant growth is stunted
• Maturation is prolonged
• Severe deficiency looks like a magnesium deficiency
How to treat a Manganese deficiency:
• Flush with a low PH water (5.5) then add a complete chelated micronutrient formula
• Growth slows down and overall vigor is lost
• Dark orange rusty brown spots on leaves causing tissue damage

Iron (immobile nutrients)
Iron is essential to the enzyme systems and to transport electrons during photosynthesis, respiration, and chlorophyll production. Iron allows plants to use the energy provided by sugars. Iron is important for the reduction of nitrates and sulphates as well as their assimilation.
How to identify an Iron deficiency:
• More common when the PH is above 6.5 and very uncommon when PH is below 6.5
• First signs are interveinal chlorosis on the smaller leaves. This starts at the opposite end of the leaf tip
• Leaf edges turn upwards
• Severe cases can cause the leaves to fall off
• Excess of copper can lead to an iron deficiency
• Leaves develop necrosis and fall off
How to treat a deficiency:
• Lower the soil PH below 6.5
• Avoid using fertilizers with substantial amounts of manganese, zinc, and copper. These prevent the uptake of iron
• Phosphorus and iron compete against each other for uptake
• Improve drainage
• Increase root zone temperature
• Apply chelated iron in liquid form
• Keep your nutrient solution out of the light, as UV rays can cause iron to precipitate
• Cow, horse, and chicken manure are good organic sources of iron and chelates
• Very rare
• High levels do not damage cannabis, but it can interfere with uptake of phosphorus
• Over application of iron chelate can kill the plant in a few days
How to treat toxicity:
• Flush with a minimum of 3x the volume of water to the volume of growing medium

Boron (immobile nutrient)
Boron isn’t the cause of many problems; however, it needs to be available for the entire life cycle of your plants. Boron’s behaviour is not fully understood yet, however, we do know boron assists with calcium uptake, as well as a number of other plant functions. There is convincing evidence supporting its role in cell division, differentiation, maturation, respiration, and pollen germination.

How to identify a Boron deficiency:
• The tips of stems and roots show abnormal growth
• Root tips are swollen, discoloured and stop stretching
• Growing shoots appear to have light burn from HID lighting
• First leaves thicken and become brittle
• Top shoots contort and turn dark
• Necrotic spots develop between leaf veins
• Roots become mushy, which is perfect for root rot and other diseases
• Leaves become thick, distorted, and wilt with chlorotic and necrotic spotting
How to treat a boron deficiency:
• Mix 1 tsp of boric acid per one gallon of water. Apply it as a soil drench
• Supplementation of hydroponic micronutrients containing boron
• Keep in mind boron is toxic if the solution is too concentrated
• Leaf tips turn yellow causing them to fall off
• Leaf necrosis
• Avoid using boric acid-based insecticides
Copper (immobile nutrient)
Copper is often found in the root system and can also be used as a fungicide. Copper is only required in small amounts and helps with carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen fixation, the process of oxygen reduction, and also assists with the creation of proteins and sugars.
How to identify a copper deficiency:
• Copper deficiencies are common
• Young leaves and growing shoots wilt
• Leaves develop necrosis and turn a dark copper gray color
• Drooping can occur even when sufficiently watered
• Growth is slowed, yield is decreased
• A small deficiency can cause new shoots to die back
How to treat a copper deficiency:
• Cannabis rarely develops a copper deficiency
• Use a copper-based fungi (copper sulphate) (Do not apply if temperature is above 75 degrees to prevent burning of foliage)
• Apply a complete nutrient that contains copper
• Copper is extremely toxic even in a minor excess
• Overall plant growth is slowed
• Interveinal iron chlorosis
• Fewer branches grow
• Roots become dark, thick, and slow growing
How to treat a toxicity:
• Flush with a minimum of 3x the volume of water to the volume of growing medium
Molybdenum (immobile)
Its main function is converting nitrate to ammonium. It is used by cannabis in very small amounts and mostly active in roots and seeds.
How to identify a molybdenum:
• This micronutrient is rarely deficient
• Deficiency causes nitrogen shortage
• Older and middle age leaves yellow and may develop interveinal chlorosis
• Leaves will continue to yellow and roll up
• Growth is stunted
• Leaves may become severely twisted, die, and drop
• If using acidic soils, you may experience more deficiencies
• Too much Molybdenum can cause deficiency in copper and iron, however excess is uncommon in cannabis gardens.
Silicic acid is the form of silicon that the plants absorb. This helps keep iron and manganese levels consistent. Silicon accumulates in the epidermal cell walls where it forms hydrated amorphous silica. It also builds up in the walls of other cells. Having an abundant amount of soluble silicon is a great IPM tool because stronger cell walls resist pests and diseases more thoroughly as well as heat and drought tolerance.
How to identify a silicon deficiency:
• Decrease in yield
• New leaves grow deformed
How to treat a silicon deficiency:
• Water with PH adjusted potassium silicate solution
• There are no known symptoms of toxicity